AFT Blog

Welcome to the Applied Flow Technology Blog where you will find the latest news and training on how to use AFT Fathom, AFT Arrow, AFT Impulse, AFT xStream and other AFT software products.

Using Three Way Valves in AFT Fathom

AFT Fathom provides a Three Way Valve which increases the Engineer’s capability to model system control. The Three Way Valve Properties Window shows the three connecting pipes in drop-down lists, which allows users to specify which pipe is the combined flow pipe, and which two are the split flow pipes. By entering the loss profile through each flow path, and then by selecting the actual percent open, Fathom will calculate the actual loss values for each flow path. Using the Three Way Valve in conjunction with the Goal Seek & Control module (GSC) increases the Engineer’s capability to model I&C logic...

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Curious About Modeling Relief Valves?

Relief valves can be modeled in four different configurations with AFT products and they are shown in the figure below.  The required inputs for modeling a relief valve are the valve type, cracking pressure, valve loss model, and the exit pressure in the case of relieving to the atmosphere.    There are three types of relief models available:  Internal (Cases 1 & 1a), Relief Valve at Exit (Case 2), and Inline Exit (Case 3).  In cases 1 and 1a, the relief valve is relieving into vent piping downstream of the valve.  Note that there is initially no flow in the pipe downstream...

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Annotation Images

One of the many new features in Fathom 8 is the ability to show images in the annotation box. This simple feature will allow the engineer to easily and clearly communicate a vast array of information through the Workspace and Visual Report.   To add an image to the Workspace or Visual Report, as seen above, select the Annotation tool from the toolbox. Then select the “Line/Arrow/Image” tab and specify the file path to your image. Once the image is selected, click OK. The image box shown on the workspace can be easily moved and resized.

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Increasing Heat Exchanger Accuracy for Large Temperature Differences and Non-Linear Heat Capacity

Many times when modeling heat transfer using heat exchangers in AFT Fathom, significant temperature differences across the heat exchanger can have a major impact on the accuracy of the heat transfer results.  This can especially become a problem with non-linear heat capacity relationships.  The heat transfer across the heat exchanger in the model below is calculated from the temperature difference across the heat exchanger and the arithmetic average heat capacity. One way to enhance the accuracy of the heat transfer results is to model the single heat exchanger junction, J2, as multiple heat exchangers as shown in the below model. The...

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Sonic Choking: Flow Areas vs. Sonic Areas

AFT Arrow can be used to model various types of choking such as restriction choking, endpoint choking, and expansion choking. A useful parameter in AFT Arrow’s output is the “Sonic Flow Area” and this is the flow area in which sonic choking will occur. Comparing the sonic flow area to the actual flow area can help determine the margin between not choking and choking. The figure below provides a conceptual understanding of comparing various sonic areas to the actual flow area of a compressible system. If one defines their system such that the sonic area (ASonic,1) is less than the flow...

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Sonic Choking: Flow Areas vs. Sonic Areas

AFT Arrow can be used to model various types of choking such as restriction choking, endpoint choking, and expansion choking.  A useful parameter in AFT Arrow’s output is the “Sonic Flow Area” and this is the flow area in which sonic choking will occur.  Comparing the sonic flow area to the actual flow area can help determine the margin between not choking and choking. The figure below provides a conceptual understanding of comparing various sonic areas to the actual flow area of a compressible system.  If one defines their system such that the sonic area (ASonic,1) is less than the flow...

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Automatic Renumbering

All of the pipe numbers in Fathom must be unique. When adding a pipe to a model, the new pipe number will be incremented based on the highest pipe number currently in the model. For example, you may only have 25 pipes on the workspace, but if the highest pipe number is 100, a new pipe will automatically be assigned number 101. After several iterations of deleting and adding new pipes, the numbering scheme may be reduced to chaos. AFT Fathom provides three tools to quickly and easily renumber pipes. They can be found in the Edit menu.   The Renumbering...

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